“Central banks collectively representing a fifth of the world’s population are likely to launch retail CBDCs in the next three years”, BIS.org

DLT (Distributed Ledger Technology) will be the key component for transaction verification.


DLT is found too slow to support huge traffic and cannot support usage without the Internet.


Offline Digital Wallets for Small-Value Transactions

Users will carry their own ledger on smartphones, transactions can be verified instantly using proximity communication such as NFC.

This “Offline DLT” methodology overcomes

  1. the peak congestion
  2. offline usage problem.
  3. also allows users better control of their own privacy.

Patent-pending Technologies

  1. Offline DLT – ledger on user smartphone.
  2. Trusted Cryptography Systems – to ensure the ledger is secure and cannot be modified,
  3. QR-BLE-QR – proximity communication works with all smartphones without the need for NFC.

Competitive Landscape

  • “Currently no known technologies… that could support an offline mode”, the Bank of Russia.
  • Alipay & WeChat Pay QR code won’t work offline.
  • Apple Pay & Google Pay won’t work with low-end smartphones without NFC.
  • 41% of 3.4B active smartphones don’t have NFC in 2018.